Friday, May 22, 2020

Understanding Different Approaches to Management and Leadership - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2644 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Table of Contents LO2. Understand Different Approaches to Management and Leadership 2.1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organizations. 2.2 Explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Understanding Different Approaches to Management and Leadership" essay for you Create order 2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations. LO3. Understand Ways of Using Motivational Theories in Organizations 3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organizations in periods of change. M1. If student is able to describe Situational Leadership, core concepts and principles complimented with an illustration and are able to describe the different Developmental Maturity of subordinates and the appropriate Situational Leadership style and justify why. M2 If student is able to cite and describe its core concepts and principles of one (1) other leadership theories. 3.2 Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace. D1 If student is able to explain at least two Motivational theories/approach, discuss the application of these approaches in the workplace and evaluate its effectiveness based on own developed criteria. 3.3 Evaluate the usefulness of a m otivation theory for managers D2 If student is able to discuss and relate the Motivation Theory Goal Theory (Edwin Locke) and the Goal /Target Setting practice of management. M3 If student is able to deliver a Power point presentation on a Leadership approach and at least three Motivational Theories. D1 If student is able to use critical reflections to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions. D2 If student is able to take responsibility for managing and organizing activities. D3 If student is able to relate the application and importance of Motivation (theory) and how this can impact on his/her own personal growth and development. References LO2. Understand Different Approaches to Management and Leadership 2.1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organizations. Autocratic Gives the manager as much authority as possible. It does not include the other members of the organization in the decision-making; members are expected to obey all the orders from their managers without questions. This style has structured sets of incentives and punishments. This type hinders the input from the members of the organization arising from a big barrier between the management and its employees. However, this style maybe used and effective into intensive supervision provided through organized and structured instructions; this leads to minimal errors from the employees because there are detailed set of instructions to follow and they are afraid to make mistakes because of the respective punishments. Despite the identified effectiveness, it may sooner result to lower morale from the employees because they work with fear and no opinion; in return high turnover of absenteeism and resignation. Bureaucratic Also known as management by the book; everything is done according to policies. It is found to be effective when an employee needs to perform daily tasks repeatedly; safety or security training conducted; and employees that perform tasks that require handling cash. This is good for untrained staff members that are just new to their position in the company. However, like autocratic leadership style it may soon lead employee to lose interest in their jobs. Democratic Also known as participative encourages members of the organization to be part of the decision-making; they are well informed about everything that will affect their work and problem solving responsibilities. It is found to produce a high quality and quantity of work for a long period; since employees have trust among themselves, there is cooperation, high morale, and team spirit. There is motivation to grow and be promoted. However, this is only successful when employees are highly skilled and experienced and are well motivated to work in a group. Despite the effectiveness of this style, not all organization could apply this since there is not enough time to get every membersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ opinion and input. (Johannsen, March 9, 2014) Laissez-faire Also known as hands-off style since the management provides little to no direction to its members. The employees have power and authority to determine their goals, make their own decisions, and solve their problems as a group. This may only be implemented if all staff members are highly skilled, educated, and experienced in their areas. They must also be expert and trustworthy, that can manage to work without supervision. However, if members do not fit these categories, they may not have a very effective output hat may lead to the organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s failure. 2.2 Explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management. https://www.statpac.org/walonick/organizational-theory.htm Organizational Theory are concepts that tried to explain how an individual might react in different organizational arrangements; it aims to effectively manage the group of people according to what happened in the past and what may possibly happen in the future. Meanwhile, management practices is to allocate the organizationsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ optimum funds to be able to accomplish its objectives in the most effective and practical means possible. Because of the rapid changes and challenges happening such as globalization, intense competition, ethics and social responsibility, and diversity management must be able to evaluate the best theory to apply in their organization. One theory is the Classical Management Theory that represents a combination of scientific management, bureaucratic and administrative theory. However, this theory was found to be rigid and mechanistic. The limitations of classical organization theory rapidly became recognizable and its major deficiency was that it only tried to explain peoples incentive to work strictly as a function of economic reward. Next is Neoclassical Organization Theory, it explains that human relations movement evolved as a reaction to the tough, authoritarian structure of classical theory. It addressed many of the problems inherent in classical theory. The most serious objections to classical theory are that it created over conformity and rigidity, thus squelching creativity, individual growth, and motivation. Neoclassical theory displayed genuine concern for human needs. the belief that the goal of management was to maintain equilibrium. The emphasis was on being able to control and manipulate workers and their environment. Another is the Contingency Theory that views conflict as inescapable, but manageable. Classical and neoclassical theory viewed conflict as something to be avoided because it interfered with equilibrium. Effectiveness was a fu nction of managements ability to adapt to environmental changes. In highly volatile industries, they noted the importance of giving managers at all levels the authority to make decisions over their domain. Managers would be free to make decisions contingent on the current situation. 2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations. Among the different types of management approaches discussed above, the best to apply in the authorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s scenario of fast food restaurantà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ Jollibee and McDonalds, is only among Empirical, Human Behavior and Social System. Empirical approach is the collection of the managerial experiences that are passed on through generation of management. Human Behavior organization method concentrates on the relationship among the individuals in the organization. It believes that proper encouragement and motivation leads to greater productivity. It shows that supervision is at best when the management is knowledgeable of the organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s behavior. Meanwhile, in Social System it considers the organization as a whole. Internal and external environment relationship strongly occurs. Cooperation and harmony inside the organization is very important for it to achieve its objectives. In an organization like Jollibee and McDonalds, which recognizes that wo rk force is a very significant factor in the success of their business; they must be able to recognize that the approach they need to apply is focused on their team members. Compared to Socio-Technical Systems approach, it is appropriate in a production type of organization, where it uses the changes in technology to be able to adapt their management. Moreover, mathematical techniques may not be suitable since what the organization needs is evaluation through relationship among the individuals and it would be difficult to measure it through numbers. Mathematical approach focuses on numbers, on the quantity that can be measured, but quality is what should be evaluated in terms of the relationship and camaraderie among team members LO3. Understand Ways of Using Motivational Theories in Organizations 3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organizations in periods of change. The figure above is a model that illustrates different phases a person undergoes when there is change. The length of time that a person is experiencing the changes compared to the level of the emotional activity that is between being passive to active. A person undergoes several phases when there are changes that they are not able to control. The stages are stability, immobilization, denial, anger, bargaining, depression, testing, and acceptance. Stability represents the present condition just right after all have known a change. As of this phase, management must be able to make sure that everyone is aware of the exact changes that will arise, misunderstanding inside the organization is very vital as it will lead to more serious problems. Followed by a negative initial reaction that may vary between confusion and disorientation, a possibility of not relating what is really happening, that is called immobilization. There is a need for an intense motivation and encouragement from the management as early as this stage because a more powerful phase o is about to be rise. (Conner, May 1, 2012) Denial is the incapacity to adapt to the new information about the change; an individual usually rejects the changes that are about to happen or if possible they ignore it. After which, the anger stage sinks in, a very critical phase wherein an individual is sensitive and may burst strong emotions. During these two stages, there must be a stronger leader to handle the emotions of the workers. An autocratic type of leadership may work during this stage; the leader practices all power. Therefore, the team members are given less authority to express their feelings; because at this stage of anger and denial, decisions may be irrational and maybe based on their feelings. Bargaining stage is where an individual starts to negotiate to resist the change or lessen the possible negative result. That is why; it is best fit to apply a democratic leadership. This way, voices o f the team members will be heard and will be given importance and once more workers will motivated to work despite the changes as long as they are able to negotiate their needs. However, depression follows right after; when all changes have been taken into account. Workers will feel helpless with all the changes, that is why they need the camaraderie of their fellow workers. A lasses-faire type of leadership may work; as workers may help encourage each other to be motivated to fulfill their responsibilities despite the implemented changes. Before the last stage where an individual has accepted the changes that had happened, there is a testing phase. An individual regains his control with the situation as it has recognized his new limitations that will lead him to redefine his goals and objectives. Once more, with this stage the management must continue on inspiring their workers to be more open to the changes that they could not control. It would be best to switch to a democratic leadership as it gives a concrete leader but makes sure to give value to each suggestion from its team members. M1. If student is able to describe Situational Leadership, core concepts and principles complimented with an illustration and are able to describe the different Developmental Maturity of subordinates and the appropriate Situational Leadership style and justify why. Figure 1 Situational Leadership Matrix The figure above is an illustration of different leadership styles in various situation. It summarizes it into four major types that are Supporting, Coaching, Empowering, and Directing. In situations wherein the employees have high competence but variable commitment, management must be able to give enough support. This support may be through encouragement and motivation in words. Moreover, they have to listen to the feedbacks, comments, and suggestion of these workers. Management must be able to find out why is there a change in their commitment to work. They may want changes in their environment to be able to work better and give their full commitment. After which, the management is also responsible in facilitating some team building or some sort of activities to level up the commitment of each workers. For those workers who are willing to give their commitment to the team but are not able to cope with the necessary abilities needed in their line of work; management must be able to fulfill this lack of capability through coaching. These employees are still significant to the company as long as the management will be able to provide the proper direction and support that is through appropriate training and seminar. Moreover, they need proper direction because they are relatively inexperienced that they must have support and praise to build their self-esteem. Management must also be involve these workers in the decision making process to restore and boost their commitment. Meanwhile the directing style of leadership is best fit to workers who have high commitment but are lacking competence in their line of work. What these workers need is structure, control, and supervision that the management must be able to provide in the right time. However, for the empowering leadership style, these are best applied to workers who have been giving their full commitment to the team and have displayed high competence in thei r work. For these kind of workers, they must be kept by the organization because these are the future leaders of the team. They must be givena enough compensation that they may be continually motivated to perform better. M2 If student is able to cite and describe its core concepts and principles of one (1) other leadership theories. There are two dimension of Situational Approach to leadership that is according to whether an individual or team orientation. If it is individually oriented, then the style may change according to what type of person you are dealing with; it depends upon the workerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s competitiveness and commitment to achieving the teamsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ objectives. Meanwhile a team orientation depends on its maturity whether forming, storming, norming or performing; but greatly focuses on empowering. There are things expected to be accomplished by the managers, after making a decision, it must be announced and the manager must be able to convince everyone that it is the best approach to achieve organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s objective; manager may further present idea and invites everyone to ask questions but making sure to define appropriate limitations. 3.2 Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace. D1 If student is able to explain at least two Motivational theories/approach, discuss the application of these approaches in the workplace and evaluate its effectiveness based on own developed criteria. 3.3 Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers D2 If student is able to discuss and relate the Motivation Theory Goal Theory (Edwin Locke) and the Goal /Target Setting practice of management. M3 If student is able to deliver a Power point presentation on a Leadership approach and at least three Motivational Theories. Criteria: D1 If student is able to use critical reflections to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions. D2 If student is able to take responsibility for managing and organizing activities. D3 If student is able to relate the application and importance of Motivation (theory) and how this can impact on his/her own personal growth and development. References Anon., -. 1000ventures.com. [Online] Available at: https://1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/leadership_situational.html [Accessed 31 November 2014]. Anon., -. www.analytictech.com. [Online] Available at: https://www.analytictech.com/mb021/motivation.htm [Accessed 26 November 2014]. Anon., -. www.cliffsnotes.com. [Online] Available at: https://www.cliffsnotes.com/more-subjects/principles-of-management/motivating-and-rewarding-employees/motivation-theories-individual-needs [Accessed 28 november 2014]. Cherry, K., -. psychology.about.com. [Online] Available at: https://psychology.about.com/od/psychologytopics/tp/theories-of-motivation.htm [Accessed 29 November 2014]. Johannsen, M., March 9, 2014. www.legacee.com. [Online] Available at: https://www.legacee.com/types-of-leadership-styles/ [Accessed 26 November 2014]. 1

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Effects Of Gender, Race, And Class - 1469 Words

The effects of Gender, Race, and Class as shown in Tv shows This section of this paper, I will use three TV show to highlight the issues of Gender inequality in America, and how this affects us not only economically but, also the political side of Gender Inequality. In addition, I will explain the unchallenged culture of male dominance in a leadership position while excluding women who are work twice as hard working as their male counterpart. The word race is a big issue, but I will explain how it mostly affects black or African American people. the word race was created to rationalize slavery until this day African Americans are still suffering because of the color they skin e.g. passed over for a promotion that they are completely†¦show more content†¦However, this sitcom was filmed in Brooklyn Heights New York, at 10 Stigwood Avenue. For instance, in Season 3 episode 8 Vanessa invites a couple of her friends to her house whose families were not considered be to be upper-middle-class, upon arriving at Vanessa’s house they as sumed she was rich because she lived in a brownstone house and the furniture was lovely. The kids them reported back to their other friends how then assumed that Vanessa must be stuck up. My explanation of this reaction is that the children are not accustomed to seeing black people how can afford a good lifestyle because of their current surrounding. And this is how many people watching The Cosby Show felt in those days. All in The Family This Tv sitcom All in the Family is filled with humor but it Highlights the issues of racism in American. The sitcom started in 1971 and ended in 1979. The members of the Bunker Family are white. The Lead Character is the Husband Archie Bunker who is known as a loudmouth uneducated bigot. Mr. Bunkers believes in every stereotype he has heard. His wife Edith was a sweet well-mannered lady the opposite of her husband, but she wasn’t the brightest as the would say she wasn’t the â€Å"sharpest knife in the drawer† This family a working-class family with one daughter who was married to a young man of polish descent how was an unemployed student how Archie was not afraid to call aShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Daughter From Danang 1272 Words   |  6 PagesThrough the process of social construction, various social statuses, such as race, class, and gender, are given a deeper meaning than simply a category. In turn, these statuses begin having an effect on the groups th ey encompass, causing some groups to become dominate over others and shaping the hierarchy of their society. Once established, these statuses begin to intertwine and influence one another, along with space and time, which is called intersections. These intersections work together to furtherRead MoreSocial Stratification And Its Effects On Physical And Mental Differences1216 Words   |  5 Pagesprinciples, class, race, and gender. Social class is defines as â€Å"the grouping of individuals by economic position† (Larkin, Para. 9). Members of each social class share similar income, wealth, lifestyle, social norms, behaviors, and life opportunities. Sociology theorists Dennis Gilbert and Joseph A. Kahl developed a six class stratification system by grouping individuals by education, income, and occupation. The six classes are capitalist or elites, upper middle class, lower middle class, workingRead MoreRace, Class, Gender And Class Relations At A Real Estate Agency1313 Words   |  6 PagesRace, class and gender affect the work experience of almost all workers in the American market. The three main areas race, class, and gender interlock to form the matrix of domination because they interlock and overlap one another. 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Even further disbelief comes about when they mention of how race, class, and gender intersect and what causes certain types of people to have disadvantages in the social hierarchy. Most believe in the iconic American saying â€Å"pulling yourself up by your boot straps† believe this is the only way to achieve great achievementsRead MoreRacial Segregation And The Educational Institution964 Words   |  4 Pagesevery race, gender, and background experience while growing up. Since social class is determined in large part by education, the effects of education carry forward into the rest of each person’s life even after they’ve long left the i nstitution itself (Roy, lecture 10). In his lecture on the institution, Professor Roy adds that education allows for a path to social mobility while also reproducing inequalities. This paradox can be seen in both race and gender – albeit in varying degrees. Race is aRead MoreRace, Gender, And Age Of Criminal Sentencing : The Punishment Cost Of Being Young, Black,1430 Words   |  6 Pagesof discrimination or bias. Three physical characteristics are often times the root cause of most discrimination, race, gender, and age. In a research paper titled â€Å"The Interaction of Race, Gender, and Age in Criminal Sentencing: The Punishment Cost of Being Young, Black, and Male† three university researchers ask a series of question to determine if race, gender, and age have an effect on judicial sentencing, and how â€Å"these factors might contextualize on another†. The authors look at previous researchRead MoreThe Social Learning And Behavioral Theory1617 Words   |  7 Pageshow their individual crimes have certain trajectories. The last focuses on a specific group of graduates in order to find out their relationship and feelings with police that has developed since graduation from high school, focusing mainly on race and its effect on those factors. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Impact of Violent Media on Children Free Essays

The Impact of Violent Media on Children Submitted to: Mme. Daisy R. De Jesus Submitted by: Kimberly Anne C. We will write a custom essay sample on The Impact of Violent Media on Children or any similar topic only for you Order Now Cimafranca Javi Dawn A. Generoso Title: The Impact of Violent Media on Children Thesis Statement: Psychologists found that watching television is the single factor most closely associated with aggressive behavior. I. Introduction II. Description of Violent Media A. History B. Forms of Media 1. Lyrics 2. Television 3. Video Games III. Exposure to Violent Media A. Violent Video Games Exposure B. Violent Lyrics Exposure C. Violent Shows/Advertisements ExposureD. Juvenile Aggression 1. Cases Related to Media Violence 2. Theories Related To Media Violence 3. Factors Interacting with Youth IV. Effects of Violent Media A. Social Effects B. Psychological Effects V. Effective Ways in Trampling Media A. Methods on Approaching Children B. Government Policies to Benefit Children Viewers C. Parental Guidance 1. Curbing Children’s Television Habits VI. Conclusion I. Introduction Children would likely develop their violent characters from watching violent medias such as televisions, radios, video games, and magazines.According to the article â€Å"The Psychological Effects of Violent Media on Children† by Aimee Tompkins, there are three main impacts of bad medias. First, they become less aware to the hurt and sorrows of other people. Second, they would be more afraid of their environment. And lastly, they would be more argumentative. Although surveys say that harmful video games can make children become more quarrelsome to others, a few parents and psychologists believe that some kids gain some good things from it. The researchers of the paper believe that watching violent media either brings good or bad effects to children, depending on how see it. Everything that children see or hear in the media affects them in some ways. They imitate what the television portrays in cartoons, primetime and reality shows. Parents should limit their children’s exposure to violent acts. Unfortunately, violence is the preeminent form of entertainment. Current research shows that violent media is related to aggressive behavior. Some of these risky behaviors include cruelty to others and lack of self-reproach to one’s mistakes. On the other hand, the media such as films, video games and televisions argue that violent children are attracted to these kinds of uptight entertainment. These people believe that a child, in order to exhibit actions they have seen on the big screen, must have been exposed to more than just programming. Violent situations are all too common in everyday entertainment and there are far less programming choices that are not. Even if the choices do exist, a research has proven that parents have no big idea what their children watch on television.Many parents are more lenient or less concerned about possible negative influences brought by these violent medias. Parents are also seen bringing their children to watch feature films not suitable for their young age. As parents, they should be attentive to the content of what these forms of media have and ask whether it is appropriate for their child’s age. And the writer’s of this paper also believe that parents who allow their children to be exposed to violent medias are the reason why their children become disrespectful and disobedient to them.A lot of research has been conducted and most of these concluded that children learn aggressive attitudes and behavior from the contents of violent media. The children take in everything of what are shown in television whether it is beneficial for them or may be damaging to their minds for they still do not understand reality from fantasy. Psychologists found that watching television is the single factor most closely associated with aggressive behavior. The question now is: â€Å"Does watching violent media cause children to be violent? † This is what the makers of this paper and as well as the readers are going to find out. How to cite The Impact of Violent Media on Children, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Research Proposal on Public Policy Essay Example

Research Proposal on Public Policy Essay Public policy is the complex system of acts, decisions and laws, which illustrate the attitude of the government or the whole state towards a certain question. Public policy is a very important phenomenon which illustrates the quality and type of work of the government. Public policy touches upon every sphere of human activity and every branch of activity of the country. For example public policy influences the most important decisions in such spheres as health care, education, army and social issues. The most important questions which are important for every citizen of any state is the quality of the health care, wages, the work the police, etc. Every party with wants to win the election should work out a well-organized program for public policy, because people always value the work of the party in the public issues. Young people care about their education, so the public policy in this field should be well-balanced to win the support of the young electors. The same situation is observed in medicine. Most people do not pay attention to the international activity of the government, they care only about their own life, their own families and their health, so every party or person who plans to rule the state should pay much attention to the public policy as it is the most important activity. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Public Policy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Public Policy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Public Policy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Public policy is the most important activity of the government concerning the most important problems of the state and everyone should know everything about its structure and its types. A successful research proposal should be well-organized, well-formatted and logically-composed. When student writes a research proposal, he is expected to know everything about the topic under investigation and wants to deepen his knowledge in a certain topic and make a contribution into the discipline. So, students have to research the topic before writing the paper, realize the principles of public policy, its methods, fields, rules and its structure. Moreover, a student who writes a research proposal is supposed to introduce new vision of the problem and suggest new methods of the effective public policy. Every student who has to prepare a good research proposal faces a common problem: manner of writing of the paper. A free sample research proposal on public policy will be useful for every student who has no idea about paper writing and does not know how to prepare a logically composed paper. Another problem of every proposal is the quality of the content. Students are recommended to read free example research proposals on public policy to learn to construct and format the paper properly and see the ways of the data analysis and the most important – see how to make a paper convincing and persuade the professor that the topic is worth attention. *** ATTENTION! Free sample research proposals and research paper examples on Public Policy are 100% plagiarized!!! At EssayLib.com writing service you can order a custom research proposal on Public Policy topics. Your research paper proposal will be written from scratch. We hire top-rated Ph.D. and Master’s writers only to provide students with professional research proposal help at affordable rates. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with timely delivery. Just visit our website and fill in the order form with all proposal details: Enjoy our professional research proposal writing service!

Thursday, March 19, 2020

ETERNAL FREEDOM Essays - Candle Lights, Fishing Village, Night Wind

ETERNAL FREEDOM Essays - Candle Lights, Fishing Village, Night Wind ETERNAL FREEDOM The time to escape did come! He had been waiting for it for several months. Taking advantage of the careless of the guards, he dipped himself in water while the prisoners were passing across the stream to go back to the camp after an exhausting working day in the field. The first part of his plan went exactly as desired. Being sure they went far enough, he quickly jumped out of the stream and headed for the woods. He knew there was a highway nearby so that he could hitch-hike to go to the coast where he could easily find a boat and escape farther. It was almost midnight. He had been going about five miles, but found nothing. The cold night wind touched him, increasing his nervousness. He looked back again to make sure that nobody followed him. In a nearby small village flickered some candle lights. Cautiously, he went around the village, trying not to make any noises. Suddenly, a farmer's dog sensed him from a distance and began to bark, then followed the other dogs in the village. He was very upset but could do nothing. Some farmers came out of their houses to see what happened. Seeing nothing, they spoke harshly to their dogs, then returned to their houses. He signed a deep sign of relief and carefully went away. By dawn he still did not see the highway. He felt a little paniced. However, as inhaling the fresh air, listening to the birds, looking up the broad blue sky, he felt more comfortable. Freedom was really precious! There was a stream nearby. He wanted to take a bath. Being a son of a fisherman, he had swum very well since he was a kid. Fresh water reminded him of the days he had lived with his lovely wife and son in a fishing village on the coast of Yellow Sea. Because he was a patriotic Manchurian who had protested the assimilation of the Japanese on his people, the Japanese put him in jail. He had left his wife and son in his home village. Thinking of the day he could re-unite them, he smiled a happy smile. Suddenly, his thoughts were cut off by a lot of barking noises of dogs. The noises came closer and closer. Like a machine, he hurrily went ashore. He realized that the noises were certainly from the search party, and that he might be caught again easily. It was too late! In the distance appeared some yellow uniforms of the Japanese soldiers. He changed his mind and decided to swim offshore. "Freeze!" shouted one of the soldiers. The escaped prisoner did not want to stop swimming. He did not want to be captured again. A volley of bullets sounded in the sky. He still swam and swam. This time, a strange feeling suddenly came to him. He felt that his limbs were benumbed with something which he did not know. Then, at that moment, he suddenly saw his lovely pictures of his life- his wife, his son, his parents, and his beloved fishing village. All of them displayed and disappeared in a very short moment. Then he really felt free.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Population Proportions

Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Population Proportions Confidence intervals are one part of inferential statistics.   The basic idea behind this topic is to estimate the value of an unknown population  parameter by using a statistical sample.   We can not only estimate the value of a parameter, but we can also adapt our methods to estimate the difference between two related parameters.   For example we may want to find the difference in the percentage of the male U.S. voting population who supports a particular piece of legislation compared to the female voting population. We will see how to do this type of calculation by constructing a confidence interval for the difference of two population proportions.   In the process we will examine some of the theory behind this calculation.   We will see some similarities in how we construct a confidence interval for a single population proportion as well as a confidence interval for the difference of two population means. Generalities Before looking at the specific formula that we will use, lets consider the overall framework that this type of confidence interval fits into.   The form of the type of confidence interval that we will look at is given by the following formula: Estimate /- Margin of Error Many confidence intervals are of this type. There are two numbers that we need to calculate.   The first of these values is the estimate for the parameter.   The second value is the margin of error.   This margin of error accounts for the fact that we do have an estimate.   The confidence interval provides us with a range of possible values for our unknown parameter. Conditions We should make sure that all of the conditions are satisfied before doing any calculation. To find a confidence interval for the difference of two population proportions, we need to make sure that the following hold: We have two simple random samples from large populations.   Here large means that the population is at least 20 times larger than the size of the sample. The sample sizes will be denoted by n1 and n2.Our individuals have been chosen independently of one another.There are at least ten successes and ten failures in each of our samples. If the last item in the list is not satisfied, then there may be a way around this.   We can modify the plus-four confidence interval construction and obtain robust results.   As we go forward we assume that all of the above conditions have been met. Samples and Population Proportions Now we are ready to construct our confidence interval.   We start with the estimate for the difference between our population proportions. Both of these population proportions are estimated by a sample proportion.   These sample proportions are statistics that are found by dividing the number of successes in each sample, and then dividing by the respective sample size. The first population proportion is denoted by p1.   If the number of successes in our sample from this population is k1, then we have a sample proportion of k1 / n1. We denote this statistic by  pÌ‚1.   We read this symbol as p1-hat because it looks like the symbol p1 with a hat on top. In a similar way we can calculate a sample proportion from our second population.   The parameter from this population is p2.   If the number of successes in our sample from this population is k2, and our sample proportion is   pÌ‚2 k2 / n2. These two statistics become the first part of our confidence interval. The estimate of p1 is pÌ‚1.   The estimate of p2 is pÌ‚2.   So the estimate for the difference p1 - p2 is pÌ‚1 - pÌ‚2. Sampling Distribution of the Difference of Sample Proportions Next we need to obtain the formula for the margin of error.   To do this we will first consider the   sampling distribution of   pÌ‚1  . This is a binomial distribution with probability of success p1 and  n1 trials. The mean of this distribution is the proportion p1.   The standard deviation of this type of random variable has variance of p1  (1 - p1  )/n1. The sampling distribution of pÌ‚2 is similar to that of pÌ‚1  .   Simply change all of the indices from 1 to 2 and we have a binomial distribution with mean of p2 and variance of p2 (1 - p2 )/n2. We now need a few results from mathematical statistics in order to determine the sampling distribution of pÌ‚1 - pÌ‚2.   The mean of this distribution is p1 - p2.   Due to the fact that the variances add together, we see that the variance of the sampling distribution is p1  (1 - p1  )/n1 p2 (1 - p2 )/n2.   The standard deviation of the distribution is the square root of this formula. There are a couple of adjustments that we need to make.   The first is that the formula for the standard deviation of pÌ‚1 - pÌ‚2 uses the unknown parameters of p1 and p2.   Of course if we really knew these values, then it would not be an interesting statistical problem at all.   We would not need to estimate the difference between p1 and  p2..   Instead we could simply calculate the exact difference. This problem can be fixed by calculating a standard error rather than a standard deviation.   All that we need to do is to replace the population proportions by sample proportions.   Standard errors are calculated from upon statistics instead of parameters. A standard error is useful because it effectively estimates a   standard deviation.   What this means for us is that we no longer need to know the value of the parameters p1 and p2.   .Since these sample proportions are known, the standard error is given by the square root of the following expression: pÌ‚1 (1 -  pÌ‚1 )/n1   pÌ‚2 (1 -  pÌ‚2 )/n2. The second item that we need to address is the particular form of our sampling distribution.   It turns out that we can use a normal distribution to approximate the sampling distribution of  pÌ‚1  - pÌ‚2.   The reason for this is somewhat technical, but is outlined in the next paragraph.   Both   pÌ‚1 and   pÌ‚2   have a sampling distribution that is binomial.   Each of these binomial distributions may be approximated quite well by a normal distribution.   Thus pÌ‚1  - pÌ‚2 is a random variable.   It is formed as a linear combination of two random variables.   Each of these are approximated by a normal distribution.   Therefore the sampling distribution of pÌ‚1  - pÌ‚2 is also normally distributed. Confidence Interval Formula We now have everything we need to assemble our confidence interval.   The estimate is (pÌ‚1 - pÌ‚2) and the margin of error is z* [ pÌ‚1 (1 -  pÌ‚1 )/n1   pÌ‚2 (1 -  pÌ‚2 )/n2.]0.5.   The value that we enter for z* is dictated by the level of confidence C.  Ã‚  Commonly used values for z* are 1.645 for 90% confidence and 1.96 for 95% confidence.   These values for  z* denote the portion of the standard normal distribution where exactly  C percent of the distribution is between -z* and z*.   The following formula gives us a confidence interval for the difference of two population proportions: (pÌ‚1 - pÌ‚2) /- z* [ pÌ‚1 (1 -  pÌ‚1 )/n1   pÌ‚2 (1 -  pÌ‚2 )/n2.]0.5

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Maison Bouygues Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Maison Bouygues - Assignment Example It is irrefutable that amidst the effort of companies to deliver the value which they have chosen to impart, there have been discrepancies with these two. The tactical aspect of marketing often does not fully embody what has been strategically formulated. In line with this, this paper looks at the value creation within MB, identifying the value that it chooses and how it provides this value to its clientele. At the end, this paper will give further recommendations on how value creation can be enhanced through the alignment of strategic and tactical marketing. As with any business organization, MB's strategic aspect of marketing is comprised of its segmentation, targeting, and positioning. The company's identification of the value that it wants to provide is rationally through identifying its customers and their specific needs and wants and specifically pinpointing what image the company wants to build in the mind of its customers. Among these client groups, the New Anxious represents approximately 25% of the company's customers. This segment, having the least income (average is FF12, 700), demands the most value for their hard-earned money for their first homes. It should also be noted that MB has a relatively high presence in this group indicated by the 138 MB presence index reported. The Wealthy Savers comes next with approximately 24% of MB's clientele. Directly opposed to the New Anxious, this group generates high income which averages FF18, 100 and have owned their previous homes. MB also has a high presence in this segment relative to the industry (MB presence index is 123). Autonomous Independents represents 19% of the MB's total market. Having an average income of $16, 500, this group occupies high social level and desires to own their home after renting for some time. Relative to its competitors, MB has a relatively low presence in this market indicated by MB's presence index which is reported at 53. Wealthy Spenders and New Responsible both share approximately 16% of MB's entire market. Wealthy Spenders have the highest average income at FF19, 700. However, MB's presence in this sector is only limited compared to the whole industry. New Responsible group has a low average income of FF14, 400 who demands more value and quality from MB's products because they would want to leave their house to their children. The company has a very high presence in this segment (MB's presence index is 123). The conducted market segmentation above clearly distinguishes the targeting strategy employed by MB. Furthermore, looking at the history of the company shows how it has alters and augments the particularly markets that it intended to serve: "Initially MB focused on building small, basic homes for middle and lower-income households. During the mid-1980s, the company shifted its focus to the higher end of the single family market." This shift in targeting strateg